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Top 10 Most Popular Programming Languages


The top four most popular programming languages remain the same this month, while Kotlin rises in the ranks.

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TIOBE Software has released its monthly list of the top programming languages for November. This month, there hasn’t been much movement in the top 10 list; Python, C, C++ and Java retained their crowns in the top four. TIOBE Software CEO Paul Jansen is keeping an eye on Kotlin, which made a dramatic jump from #18 to #15 in the index.

Below is the list of the top 10 programming languages in November 2023, per the TIOBE Index rankings.

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Top 10 programming languages in November 2023

The top 10 programming languages on TIOBE’s proprietary ranking system (Figure A) mostly held steady in November. PHP and Visual Basic swapped spots. Python and C both saw declines of 3.02% and 3.31% respectively. C++ declined by 0.39%. C# rose in popularity by 3.40%.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. JavaScript
  7. PHP
  8. Visual Basic
  9. SQL
  10. Assembly Language

Figure A

TIOBE Index rankings November 2023
The TIOBE Index’s 10 most popular programming languages for November 2023. Image: TIOBE Software

The TIOBE Index’s 10 most popular programming languages for November 2023. The change column indicates shifts month-over-month. The points system used in the ratings column is determined by the number of skilled engineers worldwide, courses and third-party vendors engaging with each language on a range of popular search engines.

Top 10 programming languages in October 2023

The top three programming languages on TIOBE’s list — Python, C and C++ — remain in their positions in October, as does the rest of the list. The competition between Java and C#, and the recent shift between the two programming languages, can be seen in Java’s large decline of -3.92% points in the proprietary TIOBE system (Figure B). C# gained 3.29% in TIOBE’s points system, the largest gain of all programming languages annually.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. JavaScript
  7. Visual Basic
  8. PHP
  9. SQL
  10. Assembly Language

Figure B

TIOBE Top Ten List October 2023
The TIOBE Index’s 10 most popular programming languages for September 2023. Image: TIOBE Software.

Top 10 programming languages in September 2023

Last month, TIOBE CEO Paul Jansen suggested the next shift in the top three programming languages might be C++ overtaking C. Between August and September, C lost 2.70% in the proprietary ranking system, but that wasn’t enough to budge it from second place (Figure B).

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. JavaScript
  7. Visual Basic
  8. PHP
  9. Assembly language
  10. SQL

Figure B

The TIOBE Index's 10 most popular programming languages for September 2023. Image: TIOBE Software
The TIOBE Index’s 10 most popular programming languages for September 2023. The change column indicates shifts month-over-month. The points system used in the ratings column is determined by the number of skilled engineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors engaging with each language on a range of popular search engines. Image: TIOBE Software

Top 10 programming languages in August 2023

The top three programming languages on the index stayed steady between July and August, with Python, C and C++ maintaining the prime spots, respectively. One notable change in this month’s index is that Julia reached #20, marking the first time the relatively new programming language has entered the upper echelons of popularity in these rankings.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. JavaScript
  7. Visual Basic
  8. SQL
  9. Assembly language
  10. PHP

SEE: Python Crash Course (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in July 2023

“A few months ago, the programming C++ language claimed position 3 of the TIOBE index (at the expense of Java),” Jansen wrote in the July post about the index.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. JavaScript
  7. Visual Basic
  8. SQL
  9. PHP
  10. MATLAB

SEE: The C++ Programming Bundle: Beginner to Expert (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in June 2023

Whereas in May it was too early to tell what impact the artificial intelligence boom might have on the TIOBE index, the impact is clear in June. “If tools such as ChatGPT remain the talk of the day, it will (attract) newcomers, and then Python is definitely here to stay. If not, Python should fear for its first position,” Jansen wrote. OpenAI’s ChatGPT was written primarily in Python. ChatGPT can be used to write code in several languages, although not always with 100% accuracy.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. PHP
  9. SQL
  10. Assembly language

Top 10 programming languages in May 2023

All of the most popular programming languages have held their spots in the TIOBE index top 10 this year, with few changes.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. Java
  4. C++
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. PHP
  9. SQL
  10. Assembly language

SEE: The Ultimate Programming Bundle (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in April 2023

Python maintained its top spot on the TIOBE list for April. Zig, a programming language spun out of Google and invented to smooth out some of the Zig team’s problems with C and C++, entered the top 50 due to working particularly well in projects involving big data.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. Java
  4. C++
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. SQL
  9. PHP
  10. Go

SEE: The Complete Career in Programming Course (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in March 2023

Python claimed the number one spot on the TIOBE index this month. The index has recently shuffled around due to a dark horse, Go, which moved into the number 10 position. Jansen pointed out that Go receives Google backing, which increases confidence in the programming language.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. Java
  4. C++
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. SQL
  9. PHP
  10. Go

SEE: Python Master Class (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in February 2023

This month’s top two programming languages were Python and C, respectively. Ranked third on this list was C++, which had a stellar year-over-year increase of 5.93%,  a very big jump compared to about 1% year-over-year growth for the other most popular programming languages.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. SQL
  9. Assembly language
  10. PHP

SEE: The Complete Computer Programmer Super Bundle (TechRepublic Academy)

Top 10 programming languages in January 2023

TIOBE named C++ its programming language of the year since it gained the most popularity throughout 2022. The excellent performance of C++ and its ability to create very large software systems without a lot of maintenance hassles through being a high-level object-oriented language contributed to its popularity, Jansen said.

  1. Python
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. Java
  5. C#
  6. Visual Basic
  7. JavaScript
  8. SQL
  9. Assembly language
  10. PHP

What is the TIOBE Index?

The TIOBE Index is an indicator of which programming languages are most popular within a given month. Its proprietor, TIOBE Software CEO Paul Jansen, notes that the index is not a prize for the “best” language or a list of in which programming language the most code has been written; instead, he uses popular search engines to determine which languages are most used among professional programmers, programming courses and third-party vendors.

SEE: ​​Intermediate & Advanced C++ Tutorial (TechRepublic Academy)



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